Функції інфінітива у реченні


Найчастіше інфінітив виконує в реченні роль частини модального дієслівного присудка:

  • без частки to після модальних дієслів can — could, may — might, must, should, would;
  • з часткою to після модальних дієслів ought, have, have got і be.

We must find out what to do next.

Is there anything I can do for you?

May I come in?

You needn’t have hurried.

Can he be waiting for us?

We ought to leave early tomorrow morning.

I think you should have told him you were sorry.

Do you have to come here every day?

Досить часто цю функцію виконує Passive Infinitive:

This work must be done as soon as possible.

It can’t be helped.

Books must not be taken away from the reading-room.

You’ll have to be examined again.

The question should have been settled long ago.

У сполученні з допоміжними дієсловами shall, will, should, would, do (did) інфінітив утворює особові дієслівні форми, які виконують роль простого присудка.

What did you say?

Shall I read?

Інфінітив може також виступати в таких функціях:

  • підмета:

То know English means first of all to be able to speak English.

To say such a thing would be unfair.

Інфінітив-підмет звичайно стоїть після присудка, а речення в цих випадках починається з вставного it.

It would be unfair to say such a thing.

Найбільш типовими конструкціями такого типу є:

It is (was, will be, has been, would be, must be) better (good, bad, easy, difficult, necessary, nice, hard, impossible, interesting, important, strange) + інфінітив.

It’s impossible to understand what you say.

Do you think it would be better to go there tomorrow?

It’s so good to see you again.

It must be interesting to work there.

Will it be hard to pass the examination?

It is (was, etc.) kind (wrong, wise, unwise, clever, rude, unkind, bold, nice, careless, good) of smb. + інфінітив.

It was wrong of you to say such a thing.

It’s so kind of you to help me.

It’s so nice of you to come.

 

  • додатка до дієслова; як прямий (безприйменниковий) додаток інфінітив найчастіше вживається після дієслів to agree, to advise, to allow, to begin, to continue, to decide, to desire, to expect, to fear, to forget, to hope, to hate, to intend, to learn, to like, to love, to manage, to mean (мати намір), to need, to offer, to prefer, to pretend, to promise, to propose, to refuse, to regret, to remember, to try, to trouble (турбувати себе), to want, to wish.

We promised to be home by seven.

I like to speak English.

You don’t mean to say that Nick wants to take part in the championship.

How did you manage to get here before us?

I hate to argue.

Please don’t trouble to see me out.

Where did you learn to swim?

Why did you pretend not to see me?

Don’t forget to buy some ink.

  • додатка до прикметника; інфінітив як додаток приймають прикметники afraid, able, anxious, delighted, eager, glad, pleased, ready, sorry, unable:

I’m always ready to help you.

I’m glad to see you.

I’m sorry to be late.

Everybody was anxious to know what had happened.

We were sorry not to see you at the meeting.

You are not afraid to go alone, are you?

We were delighted to hear of your success.

I’m very pleased to meet you.

Інфінітив може вживатись майже після будь-якого прикметника, який означається прислівником ступеня too або enough. У цьому разі інфінітив виконує функцію обставини результату.

I’m too tired to go any further.

I was near enough to see everything.

  • означення (постпозитивного) до іменника (займенника) :

Come on, we’ve no time to waste. (Ходім, ми не можемо гаяти часу.)

Please give me some water to drink. (Дай мені, будь ласка, води напитись.)

Не was the first to arrive and the last to leave.

I haven’t anything more to say.

Now it’s your turn to recite.

That’s a difficult sound to pronounce.

У цій функції за інфінітивом нерідко йде прийменник.

Will you give me a knife to cut the bread with?

What a fine garden to play in!

What’s the matter? — Nothing to worry about.

I have no library to speak of. (Про мою бібліотеку не варто й говорити.)

  • предикатива:

Our plan is to start at once.

  • обставини мети:

I’ve come here to work, not to play.

We stopped to have a rest.

We sent Mike to buy some stamps.

  • обставини результату:

I’m too busy to go to the match today.

You are clever enough to do the job yourself.

It’s never too late to learn.

My sister is too young to go to school.

У сполученні з відносними займенниками і прислівниками what, which, whom, how, when, where, а також із сполучниками if і whether інфінітив утворює групи, які можуть вживатися у функції різних членів речення.

I don’t know what to do (додаток).

The question is where to go and what to see (предикатив).

What to do next was our main problem (підмет).

I didn’t know whether to go on or turn back (додаток).

Do you know how to translate this sentence? (додаток).