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Передача інформації за допомогою непрямої мови на англійській мові – це один з основних показників вашої ерудиції та освіченості. Існує дійсно величезна кількість варіантів, як донести повідомлення мовця, не вдаючись до прямої мови і банального say. Ви зможете не тільки урізноманітнити своє мовлення, але й надати їй тонке емоційне забарвлення: додати нотки гніву, радості, впевненості або ж розчарування. Для передачі непрямої мови існує безліч варіантів. У даній статті ми приділимо особливу увагу дієсловам. Зверніть увагу: мало знати слово (тут: дієслово) і його переклад, слід також звернути увагу на конструкцію, яка з ним вживається. Зібрана інформація була систематизована і подана у вигляді таблиці для кращого запам’ятовування. Отже, давайте ознайомимося.

У даній таблиці ми виділяємо п’ять основних схем передачі непрямої мови (Паттернів / Patterns) за допомогою дієслів. У першій колонці стоїть безпосередньо саме дієслово, у другій – переклад його на українську мову, далі – приклад прямої мови, і в останній колонці – варіант передачі репліки мовця за допомогою згаданого дієслова. Слід також звернути увагу, що в деяких схемах присутні «квадратні дужки». Це означає, що елемент не є обов’язковим. Таблиця складена таким чином, що ви можете самостійно перевіряти, наскільки добре засвоїли матеріал. Наприклад, повторювати переклад дієслів, закривши першу колонку, спробувати передати пряму мову задопомогою непрямої, закривши останню колонку і т. д. Тепер приступимо безпосередньо до нашої таблиці:

Introductory Verb

Translation

Direct Speech

Reported Speech

Pattern 1 — Verb + that-clause

Verb + [that]

agree

Погоджуватися

“Ok, I was wrong.”

He agreed that he had been wrong.

claim

Заявляти

“I saw the UFO.”

He claimed that he had seen the UFO.

complain

Жалітися

“You never share any secrets with me!”

She complained that I never share any secrets with her.

admit

Признавати

“I was really unfriendly to him.”

She admitted that she had been unfriendly to him.

deny

Заперечувати

“I didn’t break your favourite cup!”

He denied that he had broken the cup.

exclaim

Вигукнути

“I am so happy!”

She exclaimed that she was very happy.

explain

Роз’яснити

“You see, there’s no point in going there right now.”

He explained that there was no point in going there at that very moment.

recommend

Радити

“You’d better stay at home.”

She recommended that we stayed at home.

prove

Доказувати

“See, the system works.”

He proved that the system worked.

insist

Наполягати

“You do need to be present at the meeting.”

They insisted that I need to be present at the meeting.

regret

шкодувати

“If only I could go on a vacation this year.”

She regrets that she can’t go on a vacation this year.

state

Стверджувати

“I have never seen the young man before.”

The witness stated that she had never seen the young man before.

promise

Обіцяти

“I will be back no later than eight o’clock.”

Dad promised that he will be back no later than eight o’clock.

suggest

Пропонувати

“Shall we spend the evening together?”

He suggested that they spent the evening together.

assert

Cndthl;edfnb

“Nuclear power is a safe and non-polluting kind of energy.”

The scientists asserted that nuclear power is a safe and non-polluting kind of energy.

contend

Заявляти

“The Earth may be much younger than previously thought.”

Some astronomers contend that the Earth may be much younger than previously thought.

maintain

Підтверджувати

“The new economic reforms may lead to a new crisis in the country.”

Financial analysts maintain that the new economic reforms may lead to a new crisis in the country.

declare

повідомляти

“Brown’s case should be reviewed.”

The court declared that Brown’s case should be reviewed.

imply

припускати

“I am angry no more”, she grinned.

Her grin implied that she was still angry.

observe

помічати

“He was driving at the speed over 90 miles per hour.”

The officer observed that he was driving over 90 miles per hour.

note

підмічати

“As far as I can see, you have no previous criminal record.”

The judge noted that the defendant had no previous criminal record.

comment

коментувати

“Your friend’s behavior is absolutely outrageous.”

Dad commented that his daughter’s friend’s behavior was absolutely outrageous.

point out

Звертати увагу

“It is very important to earn enough to be independent.”

She pointed out that it is very important to earn enough to be independent.

Verb + object + [that]

inform smb.

сповіщати комусь

“You will be interviewed on Thursday.”

The manager informed me that I will be interviewed on Thursday.

warn smb.

попереджати когось

“This is a very dangerous liquid.”

Dad warned the son that the liquid was very dangerous.

persuade smb.

переконувати когось

“Do buy that jacket! It’s gorgeous.”

She persuaded her friend to buy the jacket.

tell smb.

говорити комусь

“I spent the whole weekend working on my thesis.”

He told us that he had spent the whole weekend working on his thesis.

advise smb.

радити комусь

“You should visit your grandparents more often.”

The neighbour advised her that she should visit her grandparents more often.

remind smb.

нагадувати комусь

“Don’t forget to take away the suit from the dry-cleaner’s.”

Mrs. Evans reminded him that he should take away the suit from the dry-cleaner’s.

Pattern 2 — Verb + Infinitive

Verb + [not] + to-inf

agree

Погоджуватися

“Ok, I will help you with the test. ”

He agreed to help her with the test.

demand

Вимагати

“Do give the money I paid back to me!”

He demanded to give the money he had paid back to him.

offer

Пропонувати

“Shall I make some coffee for you?”

He offered to make some coffee for us.

decide

Вирішувати

“I will go to Germany next year.”

She decided to go to Germany next year.

promise

Обіцяти

“I won’t be late.”

He promised not to be late.

refuse

Відмовлятися

“I won’t accompany you to the party.”

He refused to accompany her to the party.

threaten

Погрожувати

“Unless you leave, I’ll call the police.”

She threatened to call the police unless he left.

claim

Заявляти

“I am a vegetarian.”

She claimed to be a vegetarian.

Verb + sb + [not] + to-inf

advise

Радити

“You should sleep more.”

The doctor advised him to sleep more.

allow

Дозволяти

“You may go out.”

The teacher allowed the pupil to go out.

ask

Просити

“Please let me know when the dinner’s ready.”

He asked her to let him know when the dinner would be ready.

beg

Благати

“Please do stay with me.”

He begged her to stay with him.

command

Наказувати

“Turn to the left and go straight ahead.”

He commanded to turn to the left and go straight ahead.

encourage

Підтримувати

“Come on! Call him!”

The friend encouraged her to call him.

forbid

Забороняти

“Don’t touch the dog!”

Mother forbade her little son to touch the dog.

recommend

Радити

“You should change the password immediately.”

He recommended her to change the password immediately.

instruct

Навчати

“Mix the eggs with some sugar.”

She instructed him to mix the eggs with some sugar.

invite

Запрошувати

“Come to see us on Saturday.”

They invited us to come on Saturday.

order

Розпоряджатися

“Come on in and sit down.”

He ordered the boy to come in and sit down.

permit

Дозволяти

“You may smoke here if you like.”

She permitted him to smoke there.

persuade

Переконувати

“Let’s go out somewhere for a drink.”

He persuaded Charles to go out somewhere for a drink.

remind

Нагадувати

“Don’t forget to put the oven mittens on.”

Mom reminded me to put the oven mittens on.

urge

Спонукати

“Please do get in touch as soon as you can.”

Susan urged them to get in touch.

tell

Говорити

“Close the window, it’s too cold in here.”

She told him to close the window as it was too cold in there.

warn

Попереджати

“Don’t touch the boiling kettle.”

She warned the kid not to touch the boiling kettle.

want

Хотіти

“Don’t tell Mary about that.”

She didn’t want Mary to know that.

Pattern 3 — Verb + Gerund

Verb + [not] + gerund

deny

Заперечувати

“I didn’t steal the necklace.”

He denied having stolen the necklace.

admit

Признавати

“It was me who broke the machine.”

He admitted having broken the machine.

recommend

Радити

“You should drink more water.”

The doctor recommended drinking more water.

suggest

Пропонувати

“Let’s go to Greece in summer.”

Mike suggested going to Greece in summer.

regret

Співчувати

“I am sorry I waste so much time on computer games.”

He regrets wasting so much time on computer games.

advise

Радити

“Drink a glass of water every time before meals.”

The nutritionist advises drinking a glass of water every time before meals.

Verb + preposition + [not] + gerund

apologise for

Вибачатися за

“I am sorry I can’t spend enough time with our family.”

He apologized for not spending enough time with the family.

admit to

Признаватися в

“It was me who broke the window.”

The boy admitted to having broken the window.

boast about

Хвастатися чимось

“I am the senior manager of the company.”

She boasted about being the senior manager of the company.

object to

Заперечувати

“I won’t rewrite the article.”

He objected to rewriting the article.

insist on

Наполягати на

“It’s very advisable for you to see the new movie.”

He insisted on seeing the new movie.

Verb + object + preposition + [not] + gerund

accuse smb. of

звинувачувати когост в чомусь

“It was he who killed John.”

The witness accused him of having killed John.

complain to smb. about

жалітися комусь на щось

“I am so sick and tired of this boring project.”

Leo complained to his brother about being sick and tired with that boring project.

criticise smb. for

критикувати когось за щось

“You are always so inattentive.”

She criticized her daughter for being always inattentive.

blame smb. for

винити когось в чомусь

“You are absolutely heartless.”

She blamed him for being absolutely heartless.

congratulate smb. on

поздроровляти когось з чимось

“Our best wishes for the baby boy!”

They congratulated her on having a son.

praise smb. for

хвалити когось за щось

“You are so courageous!”

The mayor praised the rescue team for being very courageous.

suspect smb. of

підозрювати когось в чомусь

“Have you told her my secret?”

Jane suspected Ann of having told her secret.

Pattern 4 — Verb + object

describe

Описувати

“The nature is really gorgeous there.”

She described the beauty of the nature there.

emphasize

Підкреслювати; робити наголос

“It is an extremely important issue.”

The colonel emphasized the importance of the issue.

highlight

Виділяти

“Here’s the plan for the conference.”

The chief highlighted the plan for the conference.

stress

Підкреслювати

“This is a very awkward situation.”

He stressed the awkwardness of the situation.

prove

Доказувати

“See, I told you it was all his guilt.”

She proved his guilt.

mention

Згадувати

“By the way, she’s Lisa.”

He mentioned her name, Lisa.

put forward

Пропонувати

“We’ve got a number of suggestions.”

They put forward a number of suggestions.

propose

Пропонувати

“Let’s do it that way…”

He proposed his solution.

question

Піддавати сумніву

“I am not sure whether we can trust him.”

Jack questioned the man’s reliability.

cast doubt on

ставити під сумнів

“I am not quite sure he is a good professional.”

We cast doubt on his professionalism.

Pattern 5 — Reported Questions

wonder what / why / how / where + clause

(when the subject of the introductory verb is not the same as the subject in the indirect question)

здивуватися

He asked himself, “How old is she?”

She asked herself, “Where have I left my purse?”

He asked himself, “Why did she leave me?”

He asked himself, “What is the point of calling her?”

He wondered how old she was.

She wondered where she had left her purse.
 
 
He wondered why she had left him.

He wondered what the point of calling her was.

wonder whether + to-inf or clause

wonder where / what / how + to-inf

(when the subject of the infinitive is the same as the subject of the verb)

цікавитися

She asked herself, “Shall I forgive him?”
 
 
 
He asked himself, “Where shall I stay for a night?”

She asked herself, “What shall I do now?”

He asked himself, “How shall I ask her to give me another chance?”

She wondered whether to respond him. / She wondered whether she should respond him.

He wondered where to stay for a night.
 
 
She wondered what to do then.

He wondered how to ask her for another chance.

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