Передача інформації за допомогою непрямої мови на англійській мові – це один з основних показників вашої ерудиції та освіченості. Існує дійсно величезна кількість варіантів, як донести повідомлення мовця, не вдаючись до прямої мови і банального say. Ви зможете не тільки урізноманітнити своє мовлення, але й надати їй тонке емоційне забарвлення: додати нотки гніву, радості, впевненості або ж розчарування. Для передачі непрямої мови існує безліч варіантів. У даній статті ми приділимо особливу увагу дієсловам. Зверніть увагу: мало знати слово (тут: дієслово) і його переклад, слід також звернути увагу на конструкцію, яка з ним вживається. Зібрана інформація була систематизована і подана у вигляді таблиці для кращого запам’ятовування. Отже, давайте ознайомимося.
У даній таблиці ми виділяємо п’ять основних схем передачі непрямої мови (Паттернів / Patterns) за допомогою дієслів. У першій колонці стоїть безпосередньо саме дієслово, у другій – переклад його на українську мову, далі – приклад прямої мови, і в останній колонці – варіант передачі репліки мовця за допомогою згаданого дієслова. Слід також звернути увагу, що в деяких схемах присутні «квадратні дужки». Це означає, що елемент не є обов’язковим. Таблиця складена таким чином, що ви можете самостійно перевіряти, наскільки добре засвоїли матеріал. Наприклад, повторювати переклад дієслів, закривши першу колонку, спробувати передати пряму мову задопомогою непрямої, закривши останню колонку і т. д. Тепер приступимо безпосередньо до нашої таблиці:
Pattern 1 — Verb + that-clause
Verb + [that]
“Ok, I was wrong.”
He agreed that he had been wrong.
“I saw the UFO.”
He claimed that he had seen the UFO.
“You never share any secrets with me!”
She complained that I never share any secrets with her.
“I was really unfriendly to him.”
She admitted that she had been unfriendly to him.
“I didn’t break your favourite cup!”
He denied that he had broken the cup.
“I am so happy!”
She exclaimed that she was very happy.
“You see, there’s no point in going there right now.”
He explained that there was no point in going there at that very moment.
“You’d better stay at home.”
She recommended that we stayed at home.
“See, the system works.”
He proved that the system worked.
“You do need to be present at the meeting.”
They insisted that I need to be present at the meeting.
“If only I could go on a vacation this year.”
She regrets that she can’t go on a vacation this year.
“I have never seen the young man before.”
The witness stated that she had never seen the young man before.
“I will be back no later than eight o’clock.”
Dad promised that he will be back no later than eight o’clock.
“Shall we spend the evening together?”
He suggested that they spent the evening together.
“Nuclear power is a safe and non-polluting kind of energy.”
The scientists asserted that nuclear power is a safe and non-polluting kind of energy.
“The Earth may be much younger than previously thought.”
Some astronomers contend that the Earth may be much younger than previously thought.
“The new economic reforms may lead to a new crisis in the country.”
Financial analysts maintain that the new economic reforms may lead to a new crisis in the country.
“Brown’s case should be reviewed.”
The court declared that Brown’s case should be reviewed.
“I am angry no more”, she grinned.
Her grin implied that she was still angry.
“He was driving at the speed over 90 miles per hour.”
The officer observed that he was driving over 90 miles per hour.
“As far as I can see, you have no previous criminal record.”
The judge noted that the defendant had no previous criminal record.
“Your friend’s behavior is absolutely outrageous.”
Dad commented that his daughter’s friend’s behavior was absolutely outrageous.
“It is very important to earn enough to be independent.”
She pointed out that it is very important to earn enough to be independent.
Verb + object + [that]
“You will be interviewed on Thursday.”
The manager informed me that I will be interviewed on Thursday.
“This is a very dangerous liquid.”
Dad warned the son that the liquid was very dangerous.
“Do buy that jacket! It’s gorgeous.”
She persuaded her friend to buy the jacket.
“I spent the whole weekend working on my thesis.”
He told us that he had spent the whole weekend working on his thesis.
“You should visit your grandparents more often.”
The neighbour advised her that she should visit her grandparents more often.
“Don’t forget to take away the suit from the dry-cleaner’s.”
Mrs. Evans reminded him that he should take away the suit from the dry-cleaner’s.
Pattern 2 — Verb + Infinitive
Verb + [not] + to-inf
“Ok, I will help you with the test. ”
He agreed to help her with the test.
“Do give the money I paid back to me!”
He demanded to give the money he had paid back to him.
“Shall I make some coffee for you?”
He offered to make some coffee for us.
“I will go to Germany next year.”
She decided to go to Germany next year.
“I won’t be late.”
He promised not to be late.
“I won’t accompany you to the party.”
He refused to accompany her to the party.
“Unless you leave, I’ll call the police.”
She threatened to call the police unless he left.
“I am a vegetarian.”
She claimed to be a vegetarian.
Verb + sb + [not] + to-inf
“You should sleep more.”
The doctor advised him to sleep more.
“You may go out.”
The teacher allowed the pupil to go out.
“Please let me know when the dinner’s ready.”
He asked her to let him know when the dinner would be ready.
“Please do stay with me.”
He begged her to stay with him.
“Turn to the left and go straight ahead.”
He commanded to turn to the left and go straight ahead.
“Come on! Call him!”
The friend encouraged her to call him.
“Don’t touch the dog!”
Mother forbade her little son to touch the dog.
“You should change the password immediately.”
He recommended her to change the password immediately.
“Mix the eggs with some sugar.”
She instructed him to mix the eggs with some sugar.
“Come to see us on Saturday.”
They invited us to come on Saturday.
“Come on in and sit down.”
He ordered the boy to come in and sit down.
“You may smoke here if you like.”
She permitted him to smoke there.
“Let’s go out somewhere for a drink.”
He persuaded Charles to go out somewhere for a drink.
“Don’t forget to put the oven mittens on.”
Mom reminded me to put the oven mittens on.
“Please do get in touch as soon as you can.”
Susan urged them to get in touch.
“Close the window, it’s too cold in here.”
She told him to close the window as it was too cold in there.
“Don’t touch the boiling kettle.”
She warned the kid not to touch the boiling kettle.
“Don’t tell Mary about that.”
She didn’t want Mary to know that.
Pattern 3 — Verb + Gerund
Verb + [not] + gerund
“I didn’t steal the necklace.”
He denied having stolen the necklace.
“It was me who broke the machine.”
He admitted having broken the machine.
“You should drink more water.”
The doctor recommended drinking more water.
“Let’s go to Greece in summer.”
Mike suggested going to Greece in summer.
“I am sorry I waste so much time on computer games.”
He regrets wasting so much time on computer games.
“Drink a glass of water every time before meals.”
The nutritionist advises drinking a glass of water every time before meals.
Verb + preposition + [not] + gerund
“I am sorry I can’t spend enough time with our family.”
He apologized for not spending enough time with the family.
“It was me who broke the window.”
The boy admitted to having broken the window.
“I am the senior manager of the company.”
She boasted about being the senior manager of the company.
“I won’t rewrite the article.”
He objected to rewriting the article.
“It’s very advisable for you to see the new movie.”
He insisted on seeing the new movie.
Verb + object + preposition + [not] + gerund
accuse smb. of
звинувачувати когост в чомусь
“It was he who killed John.”
The witness accused him of having killed John.
complain to smb. about
жалітися комусь на щось
“I am so sick and tired of this boring project.”
Leo complained to his brother about being sick and tired with that boring project.
criticise smb. for
критикувати когось за щось
“You are always so inattentive.”
She criticized her daughter for being always inattentive.
blame smb. for
винити когось в чомусь
“You are absolutely heartless.”
She blamed him for being absolutely heartless.
congratulate smb. on
поздроровляти когось з чимось
“Our best wishes for the baby boy!”
They congratulated her on having a son.
praise smb. for
хвалити когось за щось
“You are so courageous!”
The mayor praised the rescue team for being very courageous.
suspect smb. of
підозрювати когось в чомусь
“Have you told her my secret?”
Jane suspected Ann of having told her secret.
Pattern 4 — Verb + object
“The nature is really gorgeous there.”
She described the beauty of the nature there.
Підкреслювати; робити наголос
“It is an extremely important issue.”
The colonel emphasized the importance of the issue.
“Here’s the plan for the conference.”
The chief highlighted the plan for the conference.
“This is a very awkward situation.”
He stressed the awkwardness of the situation.
“See, I told you it was all his guilt.”
She proved his guilt.
“By the way, she’s Lisa.”
He mentioned her name, Lisa.
“We’ve got a number of suggestions.”
They put forward a number of suggestions.
“Let’s do it that way…”
He proposed his solution.
“I am not sure whether we can trust him.”
Jack questioned the man’s reliability.
cast doubt on
ставити під сумнів
“I am not quite sure he is a good professional.”
We cast doubt on his professionalism.
Pattern 5 — Reported Questions
wonder what / why / how / where + clause
(when the subject of the introductory verb is not the same as the subject in the indirect question)
He asked himself, “How old is she?”
She asked herself, “Where have I left my purse?”
He asked himself, “Why did she leave me?”
He asked himself, “What is the point of calling her?”
He wondered how old she was.
She wondered where she had left her purse.
He wondered what the point of calling her was.
wonder whether + to-inf or clause
wonder where / what / how + to-inf
(when the subject of the infinitive is the same as the subject of the verb)
She asked herself, “Shall I forgive him?”
She asked herself, “What shall I do now?”
He asked himself, “How shall I ask her to give me another chance?”
She wondered whether to respond him. / She wondered whether she should respond him.
He wondered where to stay for a night.
He wondered how to ask her for another chance.